smelting process for antimony

The metallurgy of antimony - ScienceDirect

Jul 17, 2012· 1. Background. Antimony is a silvery, white, brittle, crystalline solid that exhibits poor conductivity of electricity and heat. It has an atomic number of 51, an atomic weight of 122 and a density of 6.697 kg/m 3 at 26 °C. Antimony metal, also known as 'regulus', melts at 630 °C and boils at 1380 °C.

Behavior of Tin and Antimony in Secondary Copper Smelting ...

This article investigates the behavior of tin and antimony, both commonly present as trace elements in electrical and electronic waste, in secondary (i.e., sulfur-free) copper smelting conditions. The experiments were conducted in oxygen partial pressure range of 10 −10 –10 −5 atm, covering the different process steps in copper smelting ...

New cleaner smelting process accidentally discovered

Aug 25, 2016· While antimony remains a metal of limited use in the wider world, the researchers believe the same process could be applied to smelting and the production of …

Lead processing | Britannica.com

Lead processing, preparation of the ore for use in various products. Lead (Pb) is one of the oldest metals known, being one of seven metals used in the ancient world (the others are gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, and mercury). Its low melting point of 327 °C (621 °F), coupled with its easy

Smelting and Refining Operations - iloencyclopaedia.org

The major hazards are exposure to ore dusts during ore processing and smelting, metal fumes (including lead, arsenic and antimony) during smelting, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide during most smelting operations, noise from grinding and crushing operations and from furnaces, and heat stress from the furnaces.

Extraction of Antimony - Element Antimony, Sb, Metalloid

Antimony is extracted mainly from ores containing antimony trisulphide in the form of stibnite. Rich ores are first subjected to liquation, whereby the fusible sulphide is removed from the gangue and concentrated. The concentrate is then reduced to metal by smelting with wrought iron in pots, in reverberatory furnaces or sometimes in blast ...

CDC - Antimony Smelters (Antimony Exposure) - NIOSH Study ...

Antimony Smelters (Antimony Exposure) 1997. Study Background. NIOSH studied 1,014 antimony smelter workers. We used company and government records to do the study. Purpose of the Studies. Animal studies show that exposure to antimony may cause lung cancer and lung disease in rats.

One-Step Extraction of Antimony in Low Temperature from ...

Abstract: A new process for one-step extraction of antimony in low temperature from stibnite concentrate by reductive sulfur-fixation smelting in sodium molten salt, using iron oxide as sulfur-fixing agent, was presented. The influences of molten salt addition and composition,

US1284164A - Starring mixture for antimony-smelting ...

A starring mixture for antimony smelting, composed of iron sulfid and an alkali metal carbonate. 3. A starring mixture for antimony smelting, composed of iron sulfid and potas sium carbonate. 4. A starring mixture for antimony smelting, composed of iron-sulfid resulting from the precipitation process of antimony smelting and potassium carbonate.

Antimony trioxide - Wikipedia

It is produced via two routes, re-volatilizing of crude antimony(III) oxide and by oxidation of antimony metal. Oxidation of antimony metal dominates in Europe. Several processes for the production of crude antimony(III) oxide or metallic antimony from material. The choice of process depends on the composition of the ore and other factors.

Improved Smelting and Refining Processes for Production of ...

The antimony smelting techniques that have been developed in Xikuangshan are typical of smelters in China. Traditional smelting methods have been improved since the 1940s, but several novel achievements have been introduced in recent years.

12.3 Primary Copper Smelting

A typical pyrometallurgical copper smelting process, as illustrated in Figure 12.3-1, includes 4 steps: roasting, smelting, concentrating, and fire refining. Ore concentration is roasted to reduce impurities, including sulfur, antimony, arsenic, and lead. The roasted product, calcine, serves as a dried and heated charge for the smelting furnace.

Gold Smelting & Refining Process - 911metallurgist.com

When the smelting process is complete, the charge is poured into a mold. Once the slag is cool, this can be separate from lead and precious metals by using a hammer or any device than can break the slag. The metallic product is named button and have to be processed in the other smelting process called cupellation.

Antimony smelting process generating solid wastes and dust ...

Overall, promoting the clean production legislation and improving technology to reduce the solid wastes from the source are the fundamental solution for the future antimony smelting process. 3. Conclusions. The four wastes generated in the antimony smelting process exhibited specific chemical composition.

The Metallurgy of Antimony | Request PDF

Antimony-bearing dust, a byproduct of the lead-smelting process, is an important secondary resource of antimony. A clean production process for producing NaSb(OH)6 by oxidation in an NaOH solution ...

Antimony process - American, Smelting Refining

The process for treating antimonial lead which comprises softening the lead, reducing and smelting the antimony slag therefrom to metal, removing tin and arsenic from said metal, concentrating same into a high antimony product and euitectic metal, treating the high antimony product in a fuming furnace thereby yielding antimony oxide, an ...

USAC Metallurgy - us antimony

printer friendly copy. METALLURGY. LIQUATION: Liquation is the melting of stibnite into "crudum" or "needle antimony". It is carried out between 550 and 600 …

REDUCTION SMELTING OF ANTIMONY CONCENTRATE …

in this area is focused at a smelting reduction process to obtain rough antimony and antimony trioxide hydro - metallurgical processing [7 - 9]. Antimony concentrate smelting reduction is per-formed in absence or presence of fluxes. The techno-logical parameters effect on the antimony behavior is not considered in the literature.

The extraction of Antimony from its ore - LEVITY

The extraction of Antimony from its ore The following photographic documentation of the process of extracting antimony from its ore made by one of my French correspondents and one of his colleagues. He says:-"These pictures describe an experiment undertaken a few years ago related to the Dry path of antimony (or Stibnite Path) as followed by E ...

refining antimony - emozionisiciliane.it

refining process antimony - chirogullegembe. Refining process for removing antimony from lead bullion, An improved process for refining lead bullion containing antimony, in which the bullion is initially heated in a refining vessel to about 25° F (14° C) above the bullion melting point, and is thereafter kept,

A New Pyrometallurgical Process for Producing Antimony ...

Antimonial dust is a by-product of lead smelting and an important material for extracting antimony. A new pyrometallurgical process for producing antimony white from the antimonial dust is reported.

Refining of Antimony - Steel knowledge - Steel grades ...

Antimony removal of coarse impurities, output of pure antimony metallurgical process, as an important part of antimony smelting process. Different antimony smelting method of coarse impurity content difference is bigger, such As antimony sulfide precipitation output of crude antimony smelting iron ore concentrate is high, its content (the mass fraction (omega / %) As follows: Sb 80 ~ 95, the ...

Separation of Antimony from a Stibnite Concentrate Through ...

Nov 23, 2010· The main purpose of this study is to characterize and separate antimony from a stibnite concentrate through a low-temperature sulfur-fixing smelting process…

Lead smelting - Wikipedia

This process also keeps the lead from oxidizing. The molten lead flows from the blast furnace into holding pots. Lead may be mixed with alloys, including antimony, tin, arsenic, copper and nickel. It is then cast into ingots. Lead exposure. Humans have been smelting lead for thousands of years, poisoning themselves in the process.

New method developed for producing some metals | MIT News

Aug 24, 2016· The material they were using, antimony sulfide, is a molten semiconductor, which normally would not allow for the kind of electrolytic process that is used to produce aluminum and some other metals through the application of an electric current. "Antimony sulfide is a very good conductor of electrons," Sadoway says.

MIT accidentally discovered a cleaner smelting process

Aug 24, 2016· Sadoway's accidental smelting process produced almost none. The team did further tests with antimony, but says the process could apply to other metals. "We could imagine doing the same for copper ...

Review of ASARCO El Paso Smelting Processes

Review of ASARCO El Paso Smelting Processes 1-3 Year Milestone 1985 Lead plant operations are closed. 1986 The antimony and cadmium plant closes and is demolished. 1989 ASARCO Mission and Ray mines ramp up production and supply to El Paso. 1992 The cadmium plant is closed. 1993 Modernization of El Paso smelter completed. 1993

AP-42, CH 12.11: Secondary Lead Processing, updated tables ...

materials. Antimony, tin, arsenic, copper, and nickel are the most common alloying materials. Refining furnaces are used to either remove copper and antimony for soft lead production, or to remove arsenic, copper, and nickel for hard lead production. Sulfur may be added to …

Antimony Smelting - Mineral Processing & Metallurgy

The history of the antimony industry of China dates back to 1897 when the Tai Shing Co. was formed, under contract with the Hunan Bureau of Mines, for the smelting of the ore to crude; and in 1908 the Wah Chang Mining & Smelting Co. was formed for the smelting and refining of …

MIT's accidental smelting discovery unlocks the potential ...

Nov 28, 2016· In a typical smelting process, this sulphur would have immediately bonded with oxygen in the air to form sulphur dioxide, the major cause of acid rain. Antimony captures electronic niche markets. What the effect of this discovery will be on the global antimony market is hard to guess.